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Playing With Python And Gmail

July 28th, 2010

python In addition to its web interface Google also provides access via IMAP. The python imaplib module defines three classes, IMAP4, IMAP4_SSL and IMAP4_stream, which encapsulate a connection to an IMAP4 server and implement a large subset of the IMAP4rev1 client protocol as defined in RFC 2060.

The IMAP4 class implements the actual IMAP4 protocol. The connection is created and protocol version (IMAP4 or IMAP4rev1) is determined when the instance is initialized.

Getting started with Python Imaplib
To start with, we will create a simple python program to login to Gmail via IMAP.

import imaplib
 
IMAP_SERVER='imap.gmail.com'
IMAP_PORT=993
 
M = imaplib.IMAP4_SSL(IMAP_SERVER, IMAP_PORT)
rc, resp = M.login('username@gmail.com', 'pa$$word')
print rc, resp
 
M.logout()

IMAP4.IMAP4_SSL is a subclass derived from IMAP4 that connects over an SSL encrypted socket (to use this class you need a socket module that was compiled with SSL support). If host is not specified, ” (the local host) is used. If port is omitted, the standard IMAP4-over-SSL port (993) is used. keyfile and certfile are also optional – they can contain a PEM formatted private key and certificate chain file for the SSL connection.

If authentication is successful the output will be:

OK ['username@gmail.com authenticated (Success)']

As part of our exercise we will be writing may usefull functions. It is good to create a python class file to put our functions so that at the end of our exercise we will have a cool python gmail library. Lets create a pygmail.py

import imaplib
 
class pygmail:
  def __init__(self):
    self.IMAP_SERVER='imap.gmail.com'
    self.IMAP_PORT=993
    self.M = None
    self.response = None
 
  def login(self, username, password):
    self.M = imaplib.IMAP4_SSL(self.IMAP_SERVER, self.IMAP_PORT)
    rc, self.response = self.M.login(username, password)
    return rc
 
  def logout(self):
    self.M.logout()
g = pygmail()
g.login('username@gmail.com', 'pa$$word')
print g.response

Listing Mailboxes
The IMAP4.list() function list mailbox names in directory matching pattern. The directory defaults to the top-level mail folder, and pattern defaults to match anything. Returned data contains a list of LIST responses.

Add the below function to our pygmial.py

def get_mailboxes(self):
  rc, self.response = self.M.list()
  for item in self.response:
    self.mailboxes.append(item.split()[-1])
  return rc

Use:

g.get_mailboxes()
for item in g.mailboxes:
  print item

This will output your Gmail mailboxes

"INBOX"
"Sent"
"Trash"
"/"
"[Gmail]/All
"[Gmail]/Drafts"
"[Gmail]/Sent
"[Gmail]/Spam"
"[Gmail]/Starred"
"[Gmail]/Trash"
"freebsd-net"
"fsug-tvm"
"openflow"

Creating, Renaming, Deleting Mailboxes
IMAP4.create, IMAP4.rename, IMAP4.delete functions will create, rename, delete the mailboxes respectively.
Lets add three more functions to out lib.

def rename_mailbox(self, oldmailbox, newmailbox):
  rc, self.response = self.M.rename(oldmailbox, newmailbox)
  return rc
 
def create_mailbox(self, mailbox):
  rc, self.response = self.M.create(mailbox)
  return rc
 
def delete_mailbox(self, mailbox):
  rc, self.response = self.M.delete(mailbox)
  return rc

Get Mail Count
The IMAP4.select function select a mailbox. Returned data is the count of messages in mailbox (EXISTS response). The default mailbox is 'INBOX'. If the readonly flag is set, modifications to the mailbox are not allowed.

Add the get_mail_count function to out Python class.

  def get_mail_count(self, folder='Inbox'):
    rc, count = self.M.select(folder)
    return count[0]

Output:

14581

You can specify your mailbox also.

g.get_mail_count('mailbox')

Get Unread Mail Count
The IMAP4.status() function request named status conditions for mailbox. The standard defines these status conditions:

MESSAGES - The number of messages in the mailbox.
RECENT - The number of messages with the Recent flag set.
UIDNEXT - The next unique identifier value of the mailbox.
UIDVALIDITY - The unique identifier validity value of the mailbox.
UNSEEN - The number of messages which do not have the Seen flag set.

Using the UNSEEN condition will return total unread messages in Inbox.

Lets define a function to get unread mail count in our pygmail.py.

  def get_unread_count(self, folder='Inbox'):
    rc, message = self.M.status(folder, "(UNSEEN)")
    unreadCount = re.search("UNSEEN (\d+)", message[0]).group(1)
    return unreadCount

Output:

2

OK, enough for a start. In the next parts of this article I will explain sending, searching, retrieving mails from Gmail via Python. So dont forget to subscribe :-)

I am pushing our small Python Gmail library to github hopefully useful to someone.
PyGmail: http://github.com/vinod85/pygmail

Categories: PYTHON Tags: ,
  1. zoobert
    July 29th, 2010 at 13:20 | #1

    What would be nice is how to use the gmail api to activate some of the options like forwarding.

    I would like to have a cron that activate the forwarding of gmail emails to my work account that is link to my blackberry in the evening when I am commuting home.

    Some examples on how to play with the API would be beneficial.

  2. July 30th, 2010 at 03:13 | #2

    Great article, one code typo…

    def logout(): should probably be def logout(self):

  3. Rohan Perera
    August 11th, 2010 at 09:14 | #4

    Do you have a method to retrieve the following from an email message:

    1) subject
    2) author
    3) message of the email

    Thanks
    Rohan

    • August 11th, 2010 at 11:39 | #5

      Yes. the below code will get the very first mail in your gmail inbox.

      from email.parser import HeaderParser

      data = M.FETCH(1, ‘(RFC822)’)
      header_data = data[1][0][1]
      parser = HeaderParser()
      msg = parser.parsestr(header_data)

      print msg['From']
      print msg['To']
      print msg['Subject']

      # get content
      for part in msg.walk():
      print part.get_content_type()
      print part.get_payload()

      hope this help.

  4. September 23rd, 2010 at 17:28 | #6

    its more helpful
    thanks..
    using ur code,only selected mails are retrieved but not other…
    check that…

  5. December 4th, 2010 at 09:20 | #7

    Is there any way to download attachments? Thanks for your post

  6. crinus
    February 11th, 2011 at 20:14 | #8

    You got a really great tutorial here. And also taught me Python, by the way!

    It’s nice doing code since I’ve been an avid coder in the past days, but
    nothing inspired for long time. Email fetching and perhaps visualization
    is one thing that interests me. With this tut, I got the Python basics as well.

    Thanks!

  1. August 19th, 2010 at 14:55 | #1
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